What is Agile Scrum Methodology in Project Management

Agile is a software development method involving a cross-functional team which works to ensure continuous product delivery. The product evolves with iterations which are based on feedback from the end user.

  • Individual and team interactions over processes and tools
  • Working software over comprehensive documentation
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
  • Responding to change over following a plan
  • Changes in the requirements are always welcomed in the advanced stage of release also.
  • As this is an interactive model where customers are involved throughout the cycle, there is transparency regarding project progress with all the stakeholders.
  • Each sprint release provides current progress of project to the customer.
  • Each sprint gives working software/module with their new requirements.

Various Agile methodologies like Scrum, Crystal, Extreme Programming, Kanban, Lean, FDD, etc. are in use. However, Scrum is the most popular framework.


Scrum is based on the following 3 Pillars- 3 Roles, 3 Artifacts and 5 Events with team having 7 to 9 members.

Roles: Product Owner, Scrum master, and development team which includes developers, designers and testers

Artifacts: Product Backlog, Sprint Backlog and Burn-Down Chart

Events: Sprint, Sprint planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint review and Sprint retrospective.

  • Product Owner: The Product Owner creates product backlog, prioritizes the backlog and is responsible for the delivery of the functionality at each iteration.
  • Scrum Master: Scrum Master is responsible for setting up the team, sprint meeting and removes obstacles to progress.
  • Development Team including testers: Team manages its own work and organizes the same to complete the sprint or cycle.
  • Product Backlog: It is a set of user stories where each User Story is short explanation of a requirement. This is prioritized by the Product Owner. Any team member can modify the same on approval of PO.
  • Sprint Backlog: It is a set of user stories to be completed in a sprint where sprint is a defined period to complete the user stories which is usually around 2-4 weeks as per agreement with the end user.
  • Burn-down chart: Burn-down chart shows current status of the work in progress and work completed throughout the process. It represents, in a graph format, the stories and features which are completed/not completed.
  • Sprint: Sprint is set period of time duration where specific work has to be completed and made ready for review. Duration of sprint is generally around 2 to 4 weeks as discussed above. It starts with Planning and meeting where the product owner and the development team decides what User Stories to be done in the respective Sprint.
  • Sprint Planning: Sprint Planning is hosted by scrum master. Sprint Planning is a process where user stories are taken from Product backlog and imported into the Sprint backlog. The Developers and Testers estimate effort to develop and test the various stories in the Sprint.
  • Daily Scrum: In Daily scrum, team discusses the work completed in the previous day and planning for the upcoming day and problems faced in sprints up till now. During daily stand-up meetings, team’s progress is tracked. Duration for the same is up to 15 minutes. It is hosted by Scrum master.
  • Sprint Review: In the sprint review meeting, the scrum team and stakeholders collaborate about what was done in the sprint which helps plan things that add value. The result of the Sprint Review is a revised Product Backlog that defines the probable Product Backlog items for the next Sprint
  • Retrospective: The sprint retrospective is generally conducted on the last day of the sprint after Sprint review meeting. The purpose of the retrospective is to discuss the things that the team did well, what they should keep doing, areas of improvement and things to be stopped which keep them away from performing their best. The meeting is hosted by the Scrum Master.
  • Functionalities to be implemented are noted as User Stories.
  • Collection of such User Stories are called as Product backlog which are prepared and maintained by Product Owner.
  • Sprint is decided by Product Owner and Development team which is a period of time to complete the user stories.
  • Sprint backlog is prepared which is a list of User Stories to be completed in the Sprint.
  • Team discusses their daily progress in Daily Scrum meeting.
  • Burn-down chart are used to track the completed work and work in process in graphical format.
  • Sprint Review meetings are held at the end of Sprint to discuss what was done in the sprint and decide the user stories to be taken for the next Sprint.
  • Finally, retrospective is arranged to understand the learnings of the performed Sprint and what can be done better in the upcoming Sprint.

We wish you best for your next Sprint if you are one of the entity involved in the Agile methodology.